|Politecnico di Torino|
|Anno Accademico 2017/18|
Bio-Nano Electronics and BioMolecular Computing
Dottorato di ricerca in Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica E Delle Comunicazioni - Torino
PERIODO: GIUGNO - LUGLIO
The course aims to introduce the use of biomolecules for the realization of innovative devices, sensors and computing systems. It starts with an introduction to biosensors, their interfaces and with a description of biomolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins in particular), with the target to understand their use in micro and nano electronic devices.
Further analysis of bio-nano-sensor construction techniques and their use in some application examples will be done.
Finally, the use of biomolecules for the realization of computational architectures will be described with some specific lectures about the use of biomolecules for building memristor devices.
Danilo Demarchi, Politecnico di Torino, Italy: Course Introduction.
Monday July 16th, 2018 – 9:30-10:30, LED2@DET, 2nd Floor C.so Castelfidardo.
Sho Hideshima, Waseda University, Japan: Semiconductor Biosensing and Functional BioNano Interfacing.
Monday July 16th, 2018 – 10:30-12:30, LED2@DET, 2nd Floor C.so Castelfidardo.
Field effect transistor (FET) based biosensors, which can be manufactured by conventional semiconductor processes, using existing infrastructure, are of great interest in many fields, including healthcare and medical applications. Semiconductor-based biosensor can detect the intrinsic charge of target proteins which bind specifically to receptors that are immobilized on the sensing elements’ surface that are the transistor gate or an extended gate. One important issue that affects such sensors is that protein charge detection is hampered by charge screening due to the electrical double layer at the electrolyte near the sensing surface. That double layer thickness is in the range of the solution’s Debye length. To overcome that problem and improve the sensitivity, the location of the target molecule charge should be closer than that of Debye Length. The application of small receptors will enable a binding reaction to occur within the Debye length, yielding more sensitive detection of proteins. So far, we have obtained a good sensitivity of FET biosensor modified with antigen-binding fragment (Fab) instead of native antibody for detecting cancer biomarkers. In addition, by taking the advantages of small receptors, we succeeded sensitive detection for an influenza virus-related protein and amyloid β (Aβ) protein, using glycan and Congo red, respectively. In the presentation, the examples of the biofunctionalization of the surface of the FET biosensors will be shown to achieve sensitive detection of target molecules.
Yuval Garini, Bar Ilan University, Israel: DNA & proteins. Structure, properties, detection and characterization – I.
Monday July 16th, 2018 – 14:30-17:30, LED2@DET, 2nd Floor C.so Castelfidardo.
Summary of the structure of DNA, RNA and proteins, its principle chemical, physical and biological properties and its main functions. This will provide the basis for understanding how the methods for detecting these important elements of life can be detected or being used for detection.
Then, we will summarize fundamental methods for detecting DNA/RNA and proteins. These methods vary from chromatography on one hand through electrophoresis, all the way to imaging techniques that takes advantages of fluorescent stains and novel microscopy methods.
Dinner with the scientists, Monday July 16th, from 19:30 to ... ???
Have dinner with the scientists and share with them your ideas and experiences.
Yuval Garini, Bar Ilan University, Israel: DNA & proteins. Structure, properties, detection and characterization - II.
Tuesday July 17th, 2018 – 9:30-12:30, LED2@DET, 2nd Floor C.so Castelfidardo.
Description of the use of DNA and proteins themselves as probes for measuring important biomedical parameters, as well as for treating diseases and even cancer.
Yosi Schacham, Tel Aviv University, Israel: Nanomaterial based electrochemical biosensors.
Tuesday July 17th, 2018 – 14:30-17:30, LED2@DET, 2nd Floor C.so Castelfidardo.
Wednesday July 18th, 2018 – 9:30-12:30, LED2@DET, 2nd Floor C.so Castelfidardo.
Different technologies for biosensing are analyzed. It is presented a review of electrochemical sensors in general and biological applications in particular. The main applications are in the fields of medicine and healthcare, food and agro and environment. Initially it is presented an overview of the fundamentals of applied electrochemistry for both nano fabrication and the application of nano scale electrochemical devices. A short review of the basic electrochemical theory are analyzed, followed by a review of basic electrical (DC &AC) and also optical characterization methods of such sensors. Next, a review of conventional microelectrodes is presented in general and the use of nano-material based electrodes in particular. Finally, few electrode systems are demonstrated; for example, 1. Silicon nano wire electrodes, 2. Metal (i.e. Au, Pt, AuPt etc.) nano particle on conjugate polymers electrodes and 3. Inkjet printed silver nano-particle electrodes modified by electroless plating. Enzyme based sensors using nano-structured electrodes tested by both amperometric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are described.
Danilo Demarchi, Politecnico di Torino, Italy: BioNanoComputing.
Wednesday July 18th, 2018 – 14:30-17:30, LED2@DET, 2nd Floor C.so Castelfidardo.
Tuesday July 24th, 2018 – 9:30-12:30, LED1@DET, 2nd Floor C.so Castelfidardo.
Introduction to the reasons why a change in computing paradigm is an actual opportunity exploiting biomolecules. Novel circuits and systems for computations that are expected to become the main actor in the forthcoming scenario are presented, going beyond the ultra-scaled CMOS technologies and focusing the attention on the emerging technologies.
Finally, detailed examples of bio-computing systems are described, using DNA as in the solution of NP-complete problems as the Hamiltonian path (or the Travelling Salesman Problem) done by the Adleman Experiment. Then computing solutions based on Enzymes, Antibodies/Antigens and Cells are described and analyzed.
Sandro Carrara, EPFL Lausanne, Switzerland: BioMemristors.
Tuesday July 24th, 2018 – 14:30-17:30, LED2@DET, 2nd Floor C.so Castelfidardo.
Wednesday July 25th, 2018 – 9:30-12:30, LED2@DET, 2nd Floor C.so Castelfidardo.
The course continues describing electrochemical biosensors based on a memristive effect and aptamers or antibodies. These novel sensing devices are developed to propose a completely new approach in the co-design of Bio/Nano/CMOS interfaces for cancer diagnostics. Affinity-based techniques are studied for the detection of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The hysteretic properties of memristive silicon nanowires functionalized with proper biomolecules provide a label-free and ultrasensitive bio-detection technique. In order to develop full systems for diagnostics, the integration with CMOS frontend, in one side of the interface, and microfluidics, in the other side, is required too. Therefore, are discussed novel circuit approaches for an automated and quick characterization of arrays of memristive biosensors. One memristive parameter, the width of the voltage gap, is directly proportional to the target molecules concentration. Thus, CMOS readouts acquiring such width, meanwhile sorting-out faulty devices, i.e. non- conducting nanowires in the array, are presented together with analog-to-digital conversion for the acquired voltage gap. A prototype of these circuits is shown as an example of design in 0.35μm CMOS technology. The integration of the CMOS readout with the nanoscale sensors and a microfluidic platform is a must for the design of robust biosensing-systems for quick data acquisition in cancer diagnostics. Therefore, the development of an improved chip-platform for cancer diagnostics based on nanofabricated Memristive Biosensors integrated, for the first time, with a microfluidic structure is also presented in this lecture by also addressing critical issues, e.g., the problems related to long connections between the Memristive Biosensors and the CMOS frontend.
Dr. Sho Hideshima is research assistant professor at Waseda University in the Research Organization for Nano & Life Innovation. He received his Doctorate degree in engineering from the department of applied chemistry in Waseda University. He received Young Researcher Award of The Surface Science Society of Japan (2009) and received a poster presentation award 1st prize at 232nd ECS meeting (2017). His research interests are development of semiconductor-based biosensors for healthcare and medical applications, and surface functionalization techniques of the biosensor.
Prof. Yuval Garini is a member of the Physics Department and the Nanotechnology Institute in Bar Ilan University since 2007. He is the head of the Bar Ilan Institute for Nanotechnology (BINA) since 2013. He is heading the Nano-Bio-Photonics laboratory that he established since 2007. He received his Ph.D. in Physics from the Technion Institute in Israel in 1994. Before that he was a member of the Applied Physics department in Delft University, the Netherlands. After his graduation, Prof. Garini established a company that developed advanced systems for biomedical applications and genetic analysis. Prof. Garini’s research focuses on the exploration of biological systems by combining advanced optical, imaging and single molecule methods, nano-structures and biophysical modeling. He is studying fundamental question of living entities, such as the organization of the genome in the nucleus as well as other dynamic processes in live cells. He is active in various national and international organizations including the Israel Physical Society, Israel Biophysical Society and the American Biophysical Society.
Prof. Yosi Shacham–Diamand is a professor for electrical engineering at the department of electrical engineering, physical electronics, school of electrical angineering and also in the department of materials science and engineering, both at the faculty of engineering Tel Aviv University. He got his D.Sc. EE 1983, M.Sc. EE 1978, and B.Sc. EE (Summa-cum Laude) 1974, all in Technion, Israel. 1983-1986 post-doctorate at U.C. Berkeley. 1987- 1989 senior lecturer, the Technion, Israel. 1989-1996 assistant professor Cornell university, 1997-2001 Associate professor and since 2001 a full professor at the school of electrical engineering, Physical Electronics department, Tel-Aviv University. He is a Visiting professor, CNR-IMM, Rome, Italy, Visiting Professor, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan and a distinguished international chair professor, Feng Chia University.
He published >220 journal papers, >300 conference papers in registered proceedings, 4 chapters in books, 20 patents, edited two conference proceedings books, and two books. Currently he is a member of the Israeli National committee for generic technology (MAGNET), office of the chief scientists, ministry of economy.
He is a member of the advisory committee of the advanced metallization conference (AMC), the Materials for Microelectronic (MAM) conference and electrochemical micro and nano technologies (EMNT). He is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Micro Electronics Engineering and the editor of special issues in the Journal of Micro Electronics Engineering and Electrochimica Acta.
His research activity is in the field of micro and nano fabrication and metallization science and technology. For more than 25 years he investigates electroless plating micro and nano fabrication for various applications such as for microelectronics, micromachining, and biochips. For the last 15 years, he conducts also a significant research program on whole cell biochips and solid-state biosensors.
Prof. Sandro Carrara is an IEEE Fellow for his outstanding record of accomplishments in the field of design of nanoscale biological CMOS sensors. He is also the recipient of the IEEE Sensors Council Technical Achievement Award in 2016 for his leadership in the emerging area of co-design in Bio/Nano/CMOS interfaces. He is a faculty member (MER) at the EPFL in Lausanne (Switzerland). He holds a PhD in Biochemistry & Biophysics from University of Padua (Italy), a Master degree in Physics from University of Genoa (Italy), and a diploma in Electronics from National Institute of Technology in Albenga (Italy). His scientific interests are on electrical phenomena of nano-bio-structured films, and include CMOS design of biochips based on proteins and DNA. Along his carrier, he published 7 books, one as author with Springer on Bio/CMOS interfaces and, more recently, a Handbook of Bioelectronics with Cambridge University Press. He also published more than 200 scientific papers and is author of 12 patents. He is Associate Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Sensors Journal; he is also founder and Editor-in-Chief of the journal BioNanoScience by Springer, and Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. He is a member of the Board of Governors (BoG) of the IEEE Circuits And Systems Society (CASS). He is member at large of the IEEE Sensors Council. He has been appointed as IEEE CASS Distinguished Lecturer for the years 2013-2014. His work received several international recognitions: several Top-25 Hottest-Articles (2004, 2005, 2008, 2009, and two times in 2012) published in highly ranked international journals such as Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Sensors and Actuators B, IEEE Sensors journal, and Thin Solid Films; a NATO Advanced Research Award in 1996 for the original contribution to the physics of single-electron conductivity in nano-particles; three Best Paper Awards at the IEEE PRIME Conference in 2015 (Glasgow), in 2010 (Berlin), and in 2009 (Cork), a Best Poster Award at the Nanotera workshop in 2011 (Bern), and a Best Poster Award at the NanoEurope Symposium in 2009 (Rapperswil). He also received the Best Referees Award from the journal Biosensor and Bioelectronics in 2006. From 1997 to 2000, he was a member of an international committee at the ELETTRA Synchrotron in Trieste. From 2000 to 2003, he was scientific leader of a National Research Program (PNR) in the field of Nanobiotechnology. He was an internationally esteemed expert of the evaluation panel of the Academy of Finland in a research program for the years 2010-2013. He has been the General Chairman of the Conference IEEE BioCAS 2014, the premier worldwide international conference in the area of circuits and systems for biomedical applications.
Prof. Danilo Demarchi received the Engineering Degree and the Ph.D. in Electronics Engineering from Politecnico di Torino, Italy, in 1991 and 1995, respectively. Full position as Associate Professor at Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, with the tenures of "Bio-Micro&Nano Systems" for Biomedical and Electronics Engineering, of "CAD for Microsystems" for Electronics Engineering and Nanotechnologies for ICT, of "NanoElectronics" for the PhD School in Electronics and Telecommunications and of "Electronics" for the Bachelor Degree in Biomedical Engineering. International Tenures as Lecturer at EPFL Lausanne for the course "Nanocomputing", Biomolecular computing module, at the Electrical Engineering PhD School, and Adjunct Professor of "Electronic Systems" at Tongji University Shanghai, PoliTong Master Degree.
Associate Faculty at the University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Main interests are micro and nano electronic systems for biomedical applications and robotics. Author and co-author of 3 patents and more than 200 scientific publications in international journals and peer-reviewed conference proceedings. Currently leading the MiNES (Micro&Nano Electronic Systems) Laboratory of Politecnico di Torino and coordinating the Italian Institute of Technology Microelectronics group at Politecnico di Torino (IIT@DET).
Coordinator or Partner of many European Projects in FP6, FP7, Horizon2020, Tempus, Leonardo and Erasmus+. He is Senior Member of IEEE, Member of the BioCAS Technical Committee, Associate Editor of the Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems (TBioCAS), Associate Editor of IEEE Sensors and of the Springer Journal BioNanoScience.
General Chair of BioCAS (Biomedical Circuits and Systems) Conference edition in Torino, October 2017.
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Programma provvisorio per l'A.A.2017/18