Politecnico di Torino  
Academic Year 2009/10  
02BAGAX, 01BAGDR Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics 

1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Civil Engineering  Vercelli 1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Mechanical Engineering  Vercelli 





Objectives of the course
The course aims, after introducing the elementary concepts of energy and temperature, to study the owned and exchanged energy that bodies have in its various forms and their transformations from one form to another that occur during processes in which these bodies are submitted. By a depth analysis of natural processes will derive and enunciate the bonds forming general restrictions (Thermodynamics laws) to which such transformation have to submit to. After the formulation of equations of state that describe the behavior of fluids more used in engineering applications, students will study some applications to closed and open systems, to thermodynamics cycles of both direct and inverse more commonly used to convert heat into work and to obtain lowtemperature fluids, focusing the need to check and optimize the processes of transformation for a respectful development of the environment, conservation and rational use of energy. Besides, the notions students learned will be used in application problems, as environment comfort and conditioning air, and numerical applications that allow the student to be familiar with the solution techniques of easy problems and with orders of magnitude.

Expected skills
Ability in analyzing easy systems involving the mass and energy transport and its transformations; knowledge of the main direct and inverse thermodynamics cycles, ability in calculus of the main energetic quantities involved, their theoretical performance and parameters which they depend from, as well as ways to improve them; evaluation ability of the processes of transformation and losses arising them from.
Knowledge of the processes of moist air transformation and application to airconditioning systems. 
Prerequisites
Calculus I and II, Mechanics.

Syllabus
System definition and boundary as well as its thermodynamic properties. Thermodynamic equilibrium, state and transformation. Intensive and extensive properties. External and internal thermodynamics system's coordinates. Definition of chemically and physically homogeneous systems. Pure substances and equations of state. Multicomponent and heterogeneous systems. Gibbs phase rule. Process and transformation. Closed and open system processes. Thermal equilibrium. Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Temperature. Work and Mechanical power. Reversibility and irreversibility. Work for reversible processes. Joule free expansion. Work lost for irreversibility. Heat and thermal flow. State diagram (p, v,T) of pure substances and its properties. Steam quality. Ideal Gas. Joule experience and its consequences. Internal energy. Total energy conservation. First Law of Thermodynamics for closed and open systems. Heat capacity at pressure and constant volume. Clausius and KelvinPlanck's statements. Axiomatic formulation of the Second law. Thermodynamics Devices that producing and absorbing work. Thermal Efficiency, specific refrigerator effect and Coefficient of Thermal Performance. Available energy (exergy), Carnot factor, second law efficiency. Thermodynamics diagrams and its properties. Thermodynamics processes and their graphic representations. Gas and vapor cycles. Refrigeration and heat pumps. Absorption refrigeration devices. Gas'vapor mixtures and Psychrometrics; Mollier diagram for moist air. Psychrometrics processes and its application for conditioning of internal environment in buildings.

Laboratories and/or exercises
The calculus practice will be developed in the classroom and in the laboratory. In particular, are foreseen in the classroom:
Example Problems on Units and its conversion  SI System and S.T. Example Problems on thermodynamics processes. Example Problems for closed and open systems on 1st and 2nd Law Example Problems on energy and exergy analysis for processes and cycles. In the laboratory: Mass and volume rate, temperature, pressure and humidity measurements useful to run energy balances or the sketch of thermodynamic cycles. Measurements of the fundamentals thermodynamics topics, of a refrigerator cycle and thermal balances. 
Bibliography
a. Reference texts
1) Notes of lectures and educational materials distributed during the course. 2)Ph. S. Schmidt, O. A. Ezekoye, J.R. Howell, D. K. Baker Thermodynamics  An Integrated learning system, J.Willey & Sons, Inc. 2006 3) G.V. Fracastoro, Fondamenti e applicazioni di Termodinamica, Otto Editore, Torino 4) Y. A. Çengel, Termodinamica e Trasmissione del Calore McGrawHill, New York, 1998 b. References and Further Readings 5) A. Cavallini  L. Mattarolo, Termodinamica Applicata, Cleuo Editore, Padova. 6) MWZemansky  MMAbbott  HCVan Ness, Fondamenti di Termodinamica per Ingegneri Vol. I and 2, Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna. 7) P. Gregorio, Esercizi di Fisica Tecnica, Ed. Levrotto & Bella, Torino. 
Revisions / Exam
The examination includes a written and an oral test. The written test, two hours lasting, will focus on the settlement of three typical problems developed during the course. The pass mark achievement allows the student to sit the oral exam, where the written total mark will be discussed. On average the oral examination will last approximately 20 minutes.
A positive mark must be registered in the same session in which it is claimed, otherwise the mark obtained will decay. 
