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Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2017/18
02GKEMB, 02GKELS, 02GKEMW
Fluid machines
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Chemical And Food Engineering - Torino
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Material Engineering - Torino
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Chemical And Sustainable Processes Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Marzano Mario Rocco ORARIO RICEVIMENTO     55 25 0 0 9
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/08 8 C - Affini o integrative Attività formative affini o integrative
Subject fundamentals
The course provides the students with a wide overview on the most important Fluid Machine topics. The subject is organized as follows:
.1) introduction (basics of thermodynamics and fluid-dynamics),
.2) components (turbines, compressors, pumps, reciprocating engines),
.3) power-plants (open and closed, steam and gas).
Thanks to this knowledge, a large variety of solutions can be described and understood, which make the main thermodynamic cycles run.
Expected learning outcomes
1) Basic knowledge of components and systems, as far as their design features and operating principle are concerned.
.2) Acquaintance with the main physical quantities, measurement units, conversion factors, order of magnitude of numerical values in the field of fluid-machines.
.3) Ability to apply theory for facing some typical problems, also by answering specific questions with the help of suitable calculations.
.4) Acquisition of a reference method ("model-procedure" or "standard-procedure") for developing reasoning about fluid-machines.
.5) Minimum culture necessary for understanding information sheared among the operators (manufacturers,providers,customers,sellers,etc.).
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Some preliminary knowledge coming from courses dealing with topics of: mathematics, physics, applied mechanics, thermodynamics, heat-transfer, hydraulics and fluid-mechanics.
Contents
Basic Thermodynamics – First law: according to Lagrange and Euler. Operating conditions: steady, unsteady, periodic. Second law. Combustion and heating value. Thermodynamic diagrams and cycles review. Basic Fluid-dynamics – Flow within pipes. Converging and converging-diverging nozzles.
Turbomachines – Absolute vs relative motion. Degree of reaction. Gas and steam turbines – reaction and impulse / axial / single-stage, Curtis wheel, others. Turbo-compressors – hybrid-flow / centrifugal / single-stage, axial / multi-stage, radial, others. Manometric characteristics and efficiency map. Positive displacement compressors – Reciprocating, rotary, others. Hydraulic Machines – Turbo-engines: Pelton, Francis, propeller and Kaplan, others. Turbo-pumps: axial, radial, hybrid-flow, single- and multi-stage. Head, flowrate, efficiency, power. Positive displacement hydraulic machines. Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines – Main ideal cycles: Otto, Diesel, Sabathè. Spark-Ignition engines, gasoline and gas fed, and compression-ignition engines. Mechanic characteristic and constant-speed part-load performance curve.
Steam power-plants – Mollier diagram of water vapor. From Carnot cycle to Rankine cycle. Compression stage by means of hydraulic pumps. Steam generator (boiler) and condenser. Over-heating and Hirn cycle. Repeated over-heating. Regeneration steam-bleeding practice (surface and mixing heat-exchangers). Co-generation: partial and total heat-recovery. Hints of off-design running. Gas power-plants – Joule or Brayton cycle. Basic, single-shaft power-plant. Mass flowrate, work, efficiency, power. Performance as a function of manometric compression ratio and combustion temperature. Inter-cooled multi-stage compression, re-heating, regeneration. Two-shaft plants. Hints of off-design running. Combined-cycle power-plants. Example of an accumulation hydraulic power-station.
Delivery modes
Each group of lectures dealing with a specific topic is immediately followed by a session of exercises: some are solved together, some are supplied for homework. The exercises give chance to practice the theoretical principles, the measurement units, the order of magnitude of numerical values. They also provide further information about topics and help to understand better the theoretical features of lectures.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Some notes concerning the lectures are available on the course’s web-site, along with the text of the utilized exercises (both those explained after lectures, and those supplied for self-training).
Reference textbooks for improving the study
G. Cornetti – F. Millo: Macchine Termiche. Ed. Il Capitello, 2007.
G. Cornetti: Macchine Idrauliche. Ed. Il Capitello, 2006.
A. Dadone: Macchine idrauliche. Ed. CLUT-Torino, 1987
G. Lozza: Turbine a gas e cicli combinati. Ed Esculapio, 1997.
Assessment and grading criteria
The exam consists of a written test. The test duration is 2 hours. The test is usually made of 2 exercises: one dealing with the "components", one dealing with the "power-plants". The student decides which exercise to face firstly and how much time employ for each exercise.
The kind of question and the assessment criteria match the five point written in the section "expected learning".
During the test the student must not communicate with anyone (neither in, nor outside the room), but is allowed to exploit whatever learning resources of his own (books, notes, photocopies ...).
To pass the exam it is necessary reaching or over-reaching the minimum score (18/30) in each individual exercise.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2017/18
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