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Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2016/17
02MAXNA
Petroleum Geology
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Petroleum Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Lo Russo Stefano ORARIO RICEVIMENTO O2 GEO/05 48 12 0 0 13
SSD CFU Activities Area context
GEO/05 6 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria per l'ambiente e il territorio
Subject fundamentals
Primary objectives of Petroleum Geology course are to explain selected geological principles and processes, and describe how certain petroleum reservoirs and source rocks are formed.
After a general introduction to the basic concepts of the Physical Geology the course concentrates on sedimentology, sedimentation environments and relationships with hydrocarbons generation and accumulation.
The course is mainly focused to provide basic geological skills for engineers involved in the Petroleum industry. The main topics developed are:

Plate tectonics, geological time and history, the fundamentals of rock formation and deformation, the essentials of various depositional environments and the reservoirs, the distribution of porosity and permeability in reservoirs produced in different depositional environments, how rock characteristics are related to modern geological processes and applied to the ancient record, petroleum reservoir and source rocks, petroleum origin, migration, and trapping.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will acquire specific skills that related to:
- major geodynamic phenomena and nature of the rocks
- understanding of the main geological phenomena of sedimentary basins genesis and evolution
- origin, migration and trapping of hydrocarbons
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Intermediate knowledge of the main natural physical and chemical phenomena
Contents
The course is subdivided intro three main section
Section I- Introduction to Geology and rocks (20% total)
Lectures:
' Introduction to Geology, Geologic time, the Earth system, the rock cycle, Earth internal structure, Continental drifts and their evidences, plate tectonics, mechanism, continental boundaries,
' Matter and material. Atoms, structures, compounds, chemical bondings, ionic, covalent, metallic, Van der Waals, Minerals. Physical properties of minerals, Mohs scale of hardness, Rock-forming minerals, Mineral Groups, Silicates.
' The igneous rocks, the rock cycle. Crystallization of Magma, Igneous Textures, Igneous Compositions, Bowen's Reaction Series, Magmatic Differentiation, Assimilation and Magma Mixing, Igneous Rock Types.
' Origin of magma: role of heat, pressure, volatiles, extrusive rock bodies, intrusive rock bodies, volcanoes, types of eruptions and effects, hot spots.
' Metamorphic rocks, characteristics, Agents of metamorphism, Pressure and Stress as Metamorphic Agents, Textural Changes, Foliation, Common Metamorphic Rocks, Contact Metamorphism, Fault Zones, degree of metamorphism, Metamorphic Facies.

Section II- Introduction to Sedimentology (50% total)
Lectures:
' Introduction to Sedimentology, Temporal and spatial scales, Primary data sources for sedimentologic/stratigraphic studies.
' Unconsolidated clastic sediments, grain-size scales, Grain shape, Clast/matrix proportion, Fabric. Sediment composition, Sediment maturity, Clay minerals,
' Clastic (siliciclastic) rocks, Carbonate sediments and rocks, Organic (carbonaceous) sediments and rocks, Evaporites, Volcaniclastic sediments and rocks
' Sediment transport and deposition, Transport media, Bernoulli effect, Transport modes, Current ripples, Dunes, Plane beds and antidunes, Waves, Tides, Ocean currents, Gravity flows.
' Sedimentary structures, grading, Cross stratification, Planar stratification, Debris-flow deposits, Turbidites, Imbrication, Sole marks, Paleocurrent measurements, Trace fossils, bioturbation, Soft-sediment deformation structures
' Facies and depositional environments, Facies analysis, associations, successions Walther's Law, sedimentary architecture, Facies models, Paleosols.
' Glacial environments, Fluvioglacial deposits, glaciolacustrine, Eolian environments, Loess, Lacustrine environments, Fluvial environments, deltaic environments, coastal environments
' Shallow marine environments, deep marine environments.
' Stratigraphic principles, Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, Chronostratigraphy, Magnetostratigraphy,
' Sequence stratigraphy, aggradation, regression (progradation), forced regression, or transgression, Clastic environments. Carbonate environments. Sea-level changes. Seismic stratigraphy. Sedimentological Processes Modeling

Section III - Sedimentary basins and Hydrocarbons (30% total)
This section includes both lectures and exercises
Lectures:
' Formation of sedimentary basins: Mechanisms, Classification
' Characterization of sedimentary basins.
' Evolution of sedimentary basins: Compaction, porosity, permeability, Burial history, Temperature and heat flow
' Evolution of petroleum systems: Introduction petroleum systems, Source rocks and petroleum generation, Petroleum migration, Petroleum accumulation in trap.
Exercises:
' Isostasy,
' Geological history
' Contour Maps
Delivery modes
The exercises in the final part of the course were held in small groups directly in the classroom. At the end of the course in the case of good weather it could be possible to make one-day educational tour focused on the examination of the sedimentary sequences of the Ligure-Piemontese Sedimentary Basin.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Summary of the main topics and PPT slides are available on the course web site.
Main reference texts:
' Compton R.R. (1962) Manual of field geology. John Wiley & Sons.
' Chapman R.E. (1983) Petroleum Geology. Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-42165-3
' Hyne N.J.(2001) Petroleum Geology, Exploration, Drilling and Production. Pennwell. ISBN 0-87814-823-X
' Knut B. (2010). Petroleum Geology. Springer. ISBN: 9783642023316.
Other specific references will be provided during the course.
Assessment and grading criteria
The written examination consists of a set of closed questions, numerically evaluated. If the numerical assessment is sufficient (≥ 18/30) students can ask for an optional oral exam to improve the final evaluation.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2015/16
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