|Politecnico di Torino|
|Academic Year 2011/12|
Environmental hydraulics/Hydrology and climatology
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Environmental And Land Engineering - Torino
The course completes the preparation of environmental engineers with basic concepts and methods for water engineering.
The module of Hydrology and Climatology provides the basis for the understanding of weather and climate and hydrology at different spatial and temporal scales.
Environmental Hydraulics module allows students to understand and model some of the key processes that characterize the motion of fluid in the environment. Particular attention is focused on the river environment.
Expected learning outcomes
The first module (Hydrology and Climatology) provides the basic quantitative knowledge about the water cycle, in order to assess the storm and flood risk, adopting deterministic and statistically based methods. It also provides students with the methodological tools to assess the availability of water resources in different climatic and geomorphological conditions.
The second module (Environmental Hydraulics) is aimed at providing knowledge about the turbulent flows, the motions of stratified fluids, the transport processes in fluids, the river morphodynamics and the interactions between hydraulics and biotic processes, with particular attention to the fluvial environment.
For both modules, field data will be treated in order make the students acquire the skills necessary to cope with them.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Knowledge of differential and integral calculus. Basic knowledge of probability and statistics. Basic knowledge of mechanics and hydraulics.
Environmental Fluid Mechanics
Setting: tensors; matrix calculus; rheology; Euler and Navier-Stokes equations.
Turbulence: introduction; temporal and ensemble averages; ergodic processes; covariance, correlation; spectra; averaged momentum equations; Reynolds stresses; kinetic energy balance for the mean and turbulent flow field; vortex cascade; free turbulence: jets, wakes, and mixing layers; wall turbulence: mean velocity profile, dissipations.
Transport processes: Fick law; molecular diffusion equation: deduction, comments, Green function; diffusion equation in two and three dimensions; convection-diffusion equation; solutions in infinite and finite domains; turbulent diffusion; shear dispersion.
River transport processes: transport of passive and reactive chemicals: modeling, solutions, and parameter evaluation; hyporheic fluxes: modeling and chemical zonation.
Sediment transport: introduction; incipient bedload; sediment discharge evaluation; bedforms: ripples, dunes, antidunes, and bars; meandering and braided rivers; suspended sediment transport.
River morphodynamics: de Saint Venant equation; Exner equation for the riverbed dynamics; characteristic lines; peculiar behaviors in one-dimensional streams.
Hydraulics of lakes: qualitative behaviors; role of thermal and chemical stratification; important dimensionless ratios.
Workshop: workshops about remarkable and scientific topics will be held (e.g., eco-hydrology, virtual water, environmental morphodynamics).
Hydrology and Climatology Module
The water cycle: the major phenomena and variables.
Principles of Climatology
Atmospheric physics and meteorology. Chemical and physical composition of the atmosphere. Thermal gradients. Formation of precipitation. Global circulation. Air masses, frontal systems.
Radiation balance and evapotranspiration. Description and reconstruction of the involved variables for net radiation calculation. Transpiration and evaporation from the free surface: description of the processes.
Simplified methods for estimating evapotranspiration based on radiation and temperature. Climatic indices. Qualitative classification by rainfall quantity and air temperature. Mapping of hydrological quantities in space.
Climate change and global warming. Methods for analysis of trends in the time series of temperature and precipitation. Effects of climate change on rainfall, runoff and the flow of flood.
Water and Soil
Soil water balance. Water in the unsaturated soil: Richardsí equation. Water retention curves, water content at field capacity, water holding capacity.
Water movement in the soil and infiltration. Models for assessing the infiltration capacity: potential and actual infiltration. Ponding time. Horton model.
The water balance of agricultural soil. Interaction between water availability and soil moisture. Elements of eco-hydrology.
Production of surface runoff. SCS Curve Number Method. Models for the formation of surface runoff at the catchment scale (net rainfall). Partitioning of the basin.
Morphology of river basins. Planimetric configuration and altitude of the basins and their size characteristics, hypsographic curve, quantitative morphological analysis of river networks.
Hydrology of high-elevation basins. Dynamics of snow accumulation and melting and effects on water availability.
Flood formation with linear models. IUH: meaning and derivation for the linear reservoir and for a linear systems of reservoirs in series (Nash). IUH of the kinematic model (area-time curve). Estimation of characteristic times (concentration and delay time). Discretization of the IUH and numerical convolution.
Statistical estimation of design variables.
Definition of design variable: concepts of risk and return period
Statistical estimation of design floods: the choice of the probability distribution, use of probability charts, parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit tests.
Statistical estimation of design rainfall: intensity-duration-frequency curves.
The students, divided into groups of 3-4 people, will execute in the lab numeric type exercises. These exercises will be compiled into reports to be submitted during the examination.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Hydrology and Climatology Module
Bras, Hydrology - An introduction to hydrologic science, Addison-Wesley, 1990
Maidment, Handbook of Applied hydrology, McGraw-Hill, 1992.
Maione, Moisello, Elementi di statistica per l'idrologia, La Goliardica Pavese , 1993.
Maione, Le piene fluviali, La Goliardica Pavese, 1995.
Environmental Hydraulics Module.
Notes by teacher
Marchi, Rubatta, Fluid Mechanics, UTET, 1981
Kundu, Cohen, Fluid Mechanics, Academic Press, 2002.
Henderson, Open-channel flow, Prentice-Hall, 1966.
Pope, Turbulence, Cambridge Univ, 2000.
Fischer et al, Mixing in inland and coastal waters, Academic Press, 1979.
Assessment and grading criteria
Oral, with discussion about works developed by students.
Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2015/16