Politecnico di Torino  
Anno Accademico 2017/18  
02OIGNX, 01OIGLP Electronic Circuits 

Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Elettronica  Torino Corso di Laurea in Electronic And Communications Engineering (Ingegneria Elettronica E Delle Comunicazioni)  Torino 





Presentazione
This course gives students an introduction to the basic concepts and techniques of analog electronics and electronic measurements.
After a review of the models of bipolar and MOS transistors, the course presents their application through a systematic study of elementary singletransistor amplifiers, then extended to the case of multistage systems. The properties and advantages of negative feedback in electronic circuits are examined, and alternative approaches for the analysis of feedback amplifiers are introduced. A significant part of the program is devoted to the study of electronic measurements, starting from the estimation of uncertainty up to the use of basic laboratory instruments. Several lab sessions are devoted to make students proficient with modern laboratory instrumentation. 
Risultati di apprendimento attesi
Knowledge of large and smallsignal models of active semiconductor devices.
Knowledge of the basic configurations of analog amplifiers. Knowledge of negative feedback systems, and of the effects of feedback on gain, bandwidth and impedances of analog amplifiers. Knowledge of alternative analytical approaches for the calculation of transfer functions and impedances of analog circuits. Ability to calculate the bias point of BJT and MOSbased amplifiers. Ability to calculate the smallsignal equivalent circuit parameters of active devices. Ability to recognize the feedback topology and to evaluate its effects on a circuit. Ability to calculate the transfer functions and network impedances of analog circuits. Ability to choose the most convenient method to analyze a given analog circuit. Knowledge of the basics of measurement theory and of uncertainty propagation according to the deterministic model Ability to estimate the uncertainty of a measurement according to the deterministic model Ability to use the most common instruments present in a laboratory and to evaluate the instrument uncertainty. 
Prerequisiti / Conoscenze pregresse
Math: derivatives, integrals, Taylor's and Fourier's series; complex algebra; numerical solution of linear and systems of equations; Proficient use of a scientific pocket calculator.
Circuit theory: solution of linear networks both in the time and in the frequency domain. Bode plots. Electronic devices: constitutive equations of diodes, BJTs and MOS transistors. Physics I and II, dimensional analysis. 
Programma
a.1. Large and smallsignal models of diodes, BJTs and MOS transistors. Equivalent circuits for the determination of the bias point of bipolar and MOS transistor. Definition and calculation of the sensitivity of the bias point (1 ECTS)
a.2. BJT and MOS amplifiers. Load line, safe operating area. Fundamental topologies of singlestage amplifiers, voltage and current gains, input and output impedances (1 ECTS) a.3. Multistage amplifiers. Impedances and transfer functions in circuits with reactive components. Frequency response (1 ECTS) a.4. Feedback: classification and effects. Evaluation of closedloop gains and impedances. Rosenstark's theorem and Blackman's formula; Miller’s theorem; Driving Point Impedance method (2 ECTS) a.5. High frequency behavior of active devices; models for the determination of the cutoff frequency (1 ECTS) b.1. Introduction to measurements: definition of a measurement, types of measurements, examples of measuring systems, basic properties of measuring systems. Electrical units: electrical units in the International System of Units (SI), reproduction of the electrical units with quantum effects, Josephson effect and the volt, quantum Hall effect and the ohm, single electron tunnelling and the ampere. b.2. Uncertainty: deterministic model (1 ECTS) b.3. Basics of analoguetodigital conversion: sampling, quantization. DC voltage and current measurements: types of instruments, connection, loading effect, multirange instruments (1 ECTS) b.4. Digital storage oscilloscopes. Resistance measurements (ammetervoltmeter method) (2 ECTS) 
Organizzazione dell'insegnamento
The theory is presented in class mostly at the blackboard, and immediately applied to the study of circuits of increasing complexity. Alternative approaches to the solution of typical numerical problems are presented and discussed. Five laboratory classes are devoted to practicing the use of basic instrumentation, to estimate the uncertainty in typical lab measurements, and to determine experimentally the transfer function of simple multistage BJT amplifiers.

Testi richiesti o raccomandati: letture, dispense, altro materiale didattico
Lecture notes on selected topics, numerical problems, homework assignments and laboratory manuals are available for download from the course website. There is no single reference textbook, but excerpts from the following texts are used as references for specific topics:
A. Sedra, K. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press (several editions available) N. Kularatna, Digital and analogue instrumentation: testing and measurement, The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2008. 
Criteri, regole e procedure per l'esame
The exam includes a written test and an oral session.
The written test (4 hours) includes: • a 30’ closedbook section (where the use of textbooks, notes etc. is not allowed) with open questions on the theory • two openbook sections (where students can use textbooks and notes, but no electronic device apart from pocket calculators) with numerical problems on electronic measurements (1h15’) and electronic circuits (2h15’) The texts of all written tests since 2012 and their numerical solutions are available on the course website. The overall score of the written test is a weighted average of the scores of the closedbook (30%) and openbook (70%) sections. The students whose written test score is 18/30 or higher are admitted to the oral exam (approximately 1 hour), which starts from a review of the written test and includes at least four questions on the course topics. The final score is an average of the written and oral scores. The grading is based on the ability of the student to address the analysis of analog circuits, to derive numerically correct results, and to discuss the fundamental concepts presented in the course. 
Orario delle lezioni 
Statistiche superamento esami 
