|Politecnico di Torino|
|Academic Year 2015/16|
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Visual communication and perception
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Architecture - Torino
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Mechanical Engineering - Torino
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Automotive Engineering - Torino
"Who little sees, nothing thinks", supports Filippo Juvarra: in the current "image civilization", the visible and formal part constitutes a fundamental and winning language (a methodological approach) in the architect's training (and not only); an approach never addressed in basic courses. The visual and perceptive part can be considered an authentic design parameter in the analysis and intervention on Architecture and City, Territory and Landscape, as well as in the definition, conservation and enhancement of Cultural Heritage, without forgetting the Design product. We talk about "sustainable architecture", but is there also a "sustainable" and congruent vision, to be applied (for example) in the eco-compatible project, as in the restoration and enhancement project? How important is then the visual and aesthetic aspect in the success of an architect, of an interior or product designer? If the same visual aspects have always been recognized and applied in the field of graphics, now also in the field of urban planning we speak, among other things, of "attenuation" in the case of interventions "incongruous" in the landscape. The same practices result indispensable in artistic or scientific fields (with perceptive-sensorial or cognitive approaches), sometimes they are clearly separated, in other cases they are strictly correlated.
We could continue in the health sector: for places of care, wayfinding, disability.
In particular, the management of big data: the volume of data must be related to the ability of the system to acquire information, as they come from different sources, appropriately related and aimed at different uses. But visual communication can also be aimed at "simpler" cases through the use of diagrams (including thematic maps) of various kinds.
Similar approaches appear indispensable in the graphic organization of works for a contest of ideas.
The same methods are valuable for car design, from the outer casing to the passenger compartment, but the same could also be said for the design of aerospace vehicles. And how can we forget the visual marketing, in the advanced version for the persuasion in advertising, business communication and mass communication?
In conclusion, awareness of vision and perception in all fields is a precious means to improve the quality of life, to communicate and interact, as in the case of multicultural exchanges. Vision is a specialized language and, as such, is made up of (a few) fundamental rules, always applicable, in all cases, in each context; the latter must always be related to the text.
Expected learning outcomes
The course aims to provide the student with a specific overview of the culture of vision (with particular attention in the field of work and professions) between theory and practice, tradition and innovation, with examples and thematic applications (on topics from time to time taken from current events and regularly calibrated on the needs of individual students). Everything to better understand (but also to apply and verify, in the analysis and project of the existing as in the project of the new) cultural matrices, structures and processes of formal languages and visual characters, with the related meanings for architecture, city, landscape, but also cinema and other. Among the most important objectives of the course it is therefore necessary to remember the control of the image and the communication of the project and its outcomes. To answer the question: what do I want to express visually? How and why?
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
The interest in the culture of vision, its application and its outcomes in the fields of architecture, landscape, city and design (and beyond) are fundamental.
Interest in the communicative, expressive and symbolic aspects of architecture, including aesthetic values. Interest in all aspects related to Perception and Visual Communication, in all its forms. The desire to complete his training as an architect with education" to vision".
1. WAYS OF COMMUNICATION
a) The communication process and its rules
The sign and its classification.
Architecture as a sign and symbol.
Graphic and iconographic sign in the language of vision.
The sign as a graphic trace in the project and its analysis: the design and the "draw", from pencils to digital.
b) Rhetoric and semiotics of vision
An effective link in the '"art of persuasion": rhetoric, image and visual communication.
From classical antiquity to the special effects: the Nouvelle Rétorique and Liegi school and so on. The Greimas experience.
2. WAYS OF VISION
a) "The visual thought" by Rudolf Arnheim
Visible and invisible, material and immaterial in architecture, city, landscape
The origins of contemporary visual communication: the image phenomenology from tradition to innovation.
From Gestalt to perception and cognition for a new and congruent "sustainable vision"
The psychology of form from Gestalt experiences to the Bauhaus, up to basic neurosciences (Maffei, Zeky, until updates with Beau Lotto).
An ecological approach to perception: James J. Gibson.
From the past to the future: mental models, methods and techniques of representation in visual culture. Visual geometries and compositional geometries. The "large geometric structure" of the visual field: Attilio Marcolli and Charles Bouleau.
From Brunelleschi's linear perspective in 3D space, in the virtual, in the interactive.
b) A successful factor: the color as "system"
The color theories compared and applied the analysis to the project.
Color in everyday architecture, city, landscape. Multiethnic and multicultural color.
Color theories of and form configuration. Kandinsky, Klee, Itten, Albers, to contemporary. Color in new trends and innovations in architectural design.
The course includes seminar activities (including international, with European and American contributions) and a laboratory for the visual communication project, in the various forms. These activities may be tested in contest notices or possibly related to those of traineeship. In some cases "reward visits" are planned in Piedmontese companies of excellence: "Grapperia Mazzetti D'Altavilla", "Pastiglie Leone" and others.
Each student will have the opportunity to agree with the teaching topics and methods of interaction with the course: from the theoretical examination to the drafting of digital, multimedia or print. Specific applications are planned, dedicated to design studios or degree theses.
Each of the possible thematic and methodological approaches proposed by the course can be critically chosen by the students, according to their own interests, also in relation to the curricula of studies. The consequent (personalized) applications can be agreed. The exam will then be prepared during the course with the assistance of the teacher and his team, and will end with a final discussion agreed, which will be better described at the beginning of the course.
The applications and the exercises may concern examples and case-histories in the field of architecture, city, landscape, up to interior design, big data and more (including the organization of the graphic designs for the exam tests and contests of ideas).
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
ARNHEIM, Rudolph, Arte e percezione visiva, Feltrinelli, Milano 1970;
KEPES, Gyorgy, Il linguaggio della visione, Dedalo, Bari 1971;
KANIZSA, Gaetano, Grammatica del vedere: saggi su percezione e Gestalt, Il mulino, Bologna 1980;
PIRENNE, Maurice, Percezione visiva: ottica, pittura, fotografia, Muzio, Padova 1991; MAROTTA, Anna, Policroma: dalle teorie comparate al progetto del colore, Celid, Torino 1999; HACHEN, Massimo, Scienza della visione: spazio e Gestalt, design e comunicazione, Apogeo, Milano 2007;
MAROTTA, Anna, Segno e simbolo, rilievo e analisi. L’esempio nell’ornatus architettonico, in: Centofanti M., Brusaporci S., Sistemi informativi integrati per la tutela la conservazione e la valorizzazione del patrimonio architettonico e urbano. p. 112-121, Roma: Gangemi Editore, 2010. MAROTTA, Anna, Retorica della visione: dal paesaggio urbano ai sememi. In: Le vie dei mercanti, S.A.V.E. Heritage safeguard of architectural, visual, environmental Heritage. Capri, 9-11 giugno 2011, vol. 1, p. 1-10, Torino: La scuola di Pitagora s.r.l.;
MAROTTA, Anna, Colore come "male culturale". Incongruenze cromatiche fra architettura e struttura visiva della città. In: "Colore e Colorimetria – Contributi multidisciplinari". Bologna, 13-14 settembre 2012, vol. 1, p. 681-688, Maggioli Editore, Milano: 2012;
MAROTTA, Anna, Arte e Teorie del colore nel cinema fra Europa e America. In: Atti della IX Conferenza del Colore, 19 - 20 settembre 2013, 2014.
BEAU, Lotto, Percezioni, Bollati Boringhieri, Torino 2017.
Assessment and grading criteria
The assessment of the acquisition of knowledge and skills will take place through oral / graphic tests and a discussion on the exercises carried out during the year. Will be evaluated: the ability to interact effectively with teachers, to independently manage the experience of the exercises with the respective outcomes (through the conscious application of the methods acquired) and to expose and effectively communicate one's own training growth. The final grade will come from a (weighted) average of the results obtained. Course languages: Italian and Spanish. The lecture materials will be provided both in Italian and in English.
Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2018/19