


Politecnico di Torino  
Academic Year 2016/17  
03CWRMC, 03CWRMH, 03CWRMO Topography 

1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Civil Engineering  Torino 1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Building Engineering  Torino 1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Environmental And Land Engineering  Torino 





Subject fundamentals
This is a basis teaching on modern geomatics techniques necessary to describe territory and artificial objects from small mapping scale (planning) to large mapping scale (architectural scale). Topographic survey and cartographic representation are needed to efficiently delineate the operations of design, knowledge and territorial planning, restoration and repair buildings, roads and other infrastructures /artificial object allowing to define their correct geometry with a specific level of accuracy.

Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge of main reference systems and coordinate systems used into the world to describe and represent the Earth surface, measure techniques of terrestrial survey and relative methods of calculation and adjustment using a rigorous statistical approach
The student can To use survey instruments (levels and total stations) for levelling and topographic networks, To calculate and adjust acquired data using commercial software tools of survey processing; To analyze the obtained results in a critic way. Practical involve a personal evaluation of the entire survey procedure from measure operation to representation phase, allowing autonomous and critical analysis. The teaching implies the definition of a complete glossary useful to describe and understand the geomatic topics. The use of these knowledge can be applied on practices and on writing relative reports. This teaching is the basis of other geomatic studies and all the subjects which require metrical information of land and relative object entities. 
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Knowledge of concepts on mathematics, physics and geometry..

Contents
Phisical geodesy: The figure of the Earth. Reference systems and related surfaces. From the geoid, to the spheroid and ellipsoid. Global and local coordinate systems, Geoid undulation.
Ellipsoidal geodesy: the geodesic normal sections, theorems of operational geodesy, geodetic field and topographic field Cartography: the mapping problem, projections and representations. Analytical forms of deformation of the projections and their differential equations, the Gauss Projection, angles and distances in the Gauss projection, the official Italian cartography. Treatment of observations: the measure problem, measurement errors, the measure as a random variable, the estimation sample, the covariance matrix, the maximum likelihood principle and the principle of least squares, the direct and indirect measurements. The indirect measurements adjustments by least squares (linear and nonlinear case) Measuring instruments: measurement of heights, angles and distances, modern tools for surveying, GPS positioning. Methods for the Earth surveying. The importance of the reference frame (planimetric networks, heights networks, observation equations, compensation, performance review). Work on the techniques of laser scanning and photogrammetric survey. 
Delivery modes
Pratical experiences on surveying instruments for measuring angles, distances and heights differences. Operating conditions and error compensation corrections. Operating methodologies. Measures in the laboratory and outdoors. Practical implementation, calculation and compensation of height network. Practical implementation, calculation and compensation of planimetric network by commercial software. Celerimetric measurements and cartographic restitution

Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
• Cina, A. (2002) – Il trattamento delle misure topografiche – Torino – CELID.
• Comoglio, G. (2008) – Topografia e cartografia – Torino, CELID. • Manzino, A. (2001) – Lezioni di Topografia – Otto Editore. Reperibile in http://ebook.polito.it/pubbl.html For deepening: • Bellone T. (2006) – Appunti di trattamento delle osservazioni – Torino, Politeko. • Cina, A. (2014) – Dal GPS al GNSS (Global Navigation Satelite System) per la Geomatica – Torino  CELID 
Assessment and grading criteria
The exam aims to test the individual achievement of the basic objective of the course, the ability to develop a process in which knowledge of design and project proposal are connected in each phase.
Before entering the oral exam, the student must meet a test of ten questions on random topics in topography, different for each candidate with three possible answers were printed. The test is passed if the correct answers are at least 6 out of 10. The oral exam starts checking the work developed during exercises that occurred individually processed by the comment of relief. The autonomy and maturity 'of the individual are verified by setting solutions to detection problems explained during lectures or tutorials. 
