Politecnico di Torino  
Anno Accademico 2017/18  
03LTJNX, 03LTJOD Electronic measurements 

Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Elettronica  Torino Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Fisica  Torino 





Presentazione
This course has two main objectives. The first is to present a sound theory of uncertainty, according to current accepted international standards and practices, introducing also several advanced tools. The second is to introduce a number of fundamental instruments that are part of a typical electronic laboratory, describing their principle of operation, important specifications, sources of uncertainty and applications.

Risultati di apprendimento attesi
Knowledge of uncertainty evaluation techniques, and ability to apply in them in basic measurement situations.
Knowledge of the principle of operation of the most common laboratory instruments, and knowledge of the tradeoffs required in an instrument design. Ability to employ the studied laboratory instrumentation in common electronic measurements. 
Prerequisiti / Conoscenze pregresse
Mathematics: Analysis, basics of theory of probability and stochastic processes.
Electronics: Circuit theory, basic operational amplifier circuits. Electronic measurements: Basics of propagation of uncertainty. Usage of multimeters and oscilloscopes. 
Programma
Uncertainty, a probabilistic approach: Introduction to the probabilistic approach, type B evaluation of the uncertainty, type A evaluation of uncertainty, propagation of uncertainty, software tools, type A evaluation with longmemory processes (flicker, random walk) and the Allan variance (1.8 ECTS)
Frequency synthesis and waveform generation: Properties of signal sources, oscillators, direct analogue synthesizers, indirect analogue synthesizers (phaselock loops), direct digital synthesizers (1.9 ECTS). Basic frequency counters: Time interval counter, frequency counter, period counter, reciprocal counter. High frequency counters: Prescaler, heterodyne converter, transfer oscillator (0.6 ECTS) . Integrating analogtodigital converters (ADCs): Dualslope ADC, multislope ADC, sigmadelta ADC (0.75 ECTS). AC RMS voltmeters and power measurements: RMStoDC analogue converters, thermal converters, sampling methods, diode detector, lockin amplifier (0.75 ECTS). Spectrum analysers: Bankoffilter analyser, sweptspectrum analyser, FFT analyser, hybrid analysers (1.2 ECTS). Resistance and impedance measurements: Resistance and impedance definitions, IV method, 2voltmeter method, 3voltmeter method, bridge methods, vector impedance meter (1 ECTS). 
Organizzazione dell'insegnamento
In addition to lectures, the course consists of inclass exercise sessions, laboratory sessions and homework assignments.
Exercise sessions are aimed at analysing practical measurement situations involving different type of instruments. Laboratory sessions are aimed at developing experimental skills, practicing with the laboratory instrumentation described in the lectures and introduce a number of applications. The laboratory sessions focus on the following topics: uncertainty, frequency measurements, frequency synthesis with phaselock loops, spectrum analysers. Homework assignments presenting examlike problems are aimed at encouraging a gradual study of the subject (optional, with biweekly frequency). 
Testi richiesti o raccomandati: letture, dispense, altro materiale didattico
Slide handouts on selected topics, exercises, homework assignments and laboratory manuals are available for download from the course website. There is no single reference textbook, but excerpts from the following additional texts are used as reference for specific topics:
JCGM 100:2008, Evaluation of Measurement Data – Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators, Cambridge University Press, 2010. A. Chenakin, Frequency Synthesizers, Artech House Inc., 2011. P. Symons, Digital Waveform Generation, Cambridge University Press, 2014. M. Engelson, Modern Spectrum Analyzer: Theory and Applications, Artech House Inc., 1984 R. A. Witte, Spectrum and Network Measurements, SciTech Publishing Inc., 2014. L. Callegaro, Electrical Impedance: Principles, Measurement and Applications, CRC Press: Taylor and Francis, 2013. 
Criteri, regole e procedure per l'esame
The exam consists in a written test followed by an oral examination.
The written test is composed of two problems (15 points each) in which students have to analyse or design a measurement setup, evaluating uncertainties and discussing sources of errors. The written test is open books and students can use a scientific calculator. The minimum pass grade for the written test is 16/30. The oral examination consists of two questions about the operation of devices and instruments described in the course and their uncertainties. The grades of the two parts are averaged to yield the final grade. Students can deliver an optional, individual, presentation on one of the laboratory sessions of their choice or discuss a research paper: these optional activities can grant up to 4 points to be added to the final grade. 
Orario delle lezioni 
Statistiche superamento esami 
