|Politecnico di Torino|
|Academic Year 2015/16|
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Mechanical Engineering - Torino
Machine Design prepares engineering students to identify how a device consisting of fixed and moving parts – the machine – can transmit mechanical energy in the ways which are best suited for a specific application. By the end of the semester the student will be able to deal with functional requirements and design specifications, to use a variety of existing mechanical components and systems and their most appropriate domain of application, to determine the shape and size of the machine components and to predict component strength and life, to choose materials best suited for the application, to take into account up-to-date standards or codes of practice and technological constraints, to employ the appropriate analytical models and numerical tools, to deploy all the appropriate arguments to assess and approve a design, and, in summary, to be able to take a responsible decision based on best current practice.
Expected learning outcomes
Foreword: Machine Design engineers/analysts are typically tasked with designing structural and mechanical components of machines (bolted connections, transmissions, bearings, shafts, couplings, springs, etc.) and the assembled systems which these components are part of. At the threshold professional level the Machine Design engineers/analysts must be able to analyse an existing machine component or design modification to meet given requirements: they apply methods and use existing software according to given specifications and under the supervision of a senior engineer. At the standard professional level the Machine Design engineers/analysts must
As a consequence this Subject Module aims at competences at the threshold level through the study of a selection of representative and complementary classes of problems each requiring a specific treatment (Contents 1 to 5), and introduces students to the standard level by exposure to a semester-long project where an assembled machine is examined and design alternatives are proposed and compared.
In order to develop the required competences applicable to any type of mechanical structure or machine, students are required, by the end of this course module, to show achievement of the following main points of
- know the theory, and the experimental evidence in support, which underpin the mathematical models of mechanical components
- identify the critical weak points for strength, according to all possible failure mechanisms, evaluate uncertainties and apply the appropriate safety coefficients, assess whether the stresses are admissible
- analyse an existing machine component to check whether it meets given requirements
- identify the governing parameters in a component design, define the shape and size of machine components, know how to introduce appropriate design modifications to improve strength and life or to upgrade specifications; this may extend, in some selected cases, to propose new designs for machine components or systems while taking full responsibility to that
- analyze the mechanical performance of interacting components assembled in a machine, i.e. kinematics, exchanged loads and stresses by means of analytical methods and modelling techniques, whether analytical or numerical
- know their theoretical background of the relevant standards, codes and regulations which are used in the field
- correctly read the mechanical drawing of a machine or its subsystem, identify parts and their assembly, understand constraints taking account of mechanical and thermal stress conditions, functional requirements, material strength
- be able to propose more ways to assemble components into a mechanical system to achieve the same function
- be able to apply the theory and the mathematical models to component and machine designs
- indentify which data are needed to a design, and where they can be found
- deploy the appropriate reasoning to approve a design, and be able to take a responsible decision based on evidence
- know how theoretical or numerical predictions or models can be checked with appropriate experimental tests
- be able to present, in both oral and written forms, a clear and well-structured set of relevant considerations on design assumptions and results
- be able to read, understand and comment technical material from books, manuals and any other source.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Attendance of this module requires fluent spoken and written English as a necessary pre-requisite: all lectures and tutorials, and all study material will be in English. Standard mathematics for engineers is sufficient. It is assumed that students taking this course-module already have knowledge and understanding of the strength of materials principles; in detail, they know and use strain and stress tensors and their principal properties, preferably in matrix notation, their graphical representation through Mohr circles, the two and three dimensional behaviour of elastic materials, the constant force design criteria of brittle and ductile materials (maximum normal stress, maximum shear stress or Tresca, maximum distortion energy or Von Mises). Moreover they master the mechanics of forces and the dynamic of rigid bodies; as to deformable bodies, they master bar and beam problems for tension, bending and torsion, and know ensuing the cross section stress distribution. It would be an advantage if students would have a prior knowledge of basic machine design elements, technical drafting and elements of mechanical machining technologies.
0 – Review of applied criteria for static strength of isotropic materials (reading material provided; tutorial 3 hrs)
1 – Design against fatigue (lectures 6 hrs, tutorials 6 hrs):
- History and overview of fatigue problems (reading and self instruction material provided)
- Stress-life fatigue: basic material properties, specimen testing and specimen fatigue (ref. to FKM standards)
- Stress-life fatigue: component fatigue, finite and infinite life (ref. to FKM standards)
- Tutorials: use of the main fatigue diagrams; application of FKM standards; notch effect; technical report on the shafts of a speed
reducer (semester-through project)
2 – Hertz contact and rolling bearings (lectures 12 hrs, tutorials 12 hrs):
- Hertz theory and applications
- Rolling bearings: static loading
- Rolling bearings: fatigue
- Design of bearing assemblies, main solutions for bearing arrangements
- Tutorials: application of Hertz theory on a selection of contact cases; angular contact bearings, preload diagram; load-life rating of
the bearings of the speed reducer (semester-through project); bearing assemblies and related problems
3 – Gears (lectures 10.5 hrs, tutorials 9 hrs):
- Summary of motion transmission, tooth shape
- Spur and helical gears with parallel axes: kinematics, geometry, forces
- Cutting techniques and profile displacement
- Criteria for strength assessment of gears: fatigue, hertz contact, wear, scuffing
- Tutorials: geometry and kinematics of gears, spur gears profile shift, design of the helical gears of the speed reducer (semester-
4 – Bolted connections (lectures 7.5 hrs, tutorials 6 hrs):
- Prestressed single bolt connections (non gasketed)
- Refinements and special problems
- Elements of gasketed bolted connections
- Tutorial: selection of overview exercises
- Tutorials: application to an hydraulic piston or to a tie-rod connection
5 – Seminars, visits, unplanned teaching and student support (lectures 1.5 hrs, tutorials 3 hrs).
Credits 8, 81 classroom hours (40.5 lecture hours, 40.5 tutorial hours). The total study load for this course-module is 200 to 240 total hours, i.e., 25 to 30 hours per credit. This includes classroom hours, self study, completion of tutorials at home and reporting.
Class hours are equally shared between theoretical lectures and application tutorials, in order to achieve a balance between
All lecture materials will be made available on the course unit website before the class activity. Students are urged to download or print them so to have them at hand to take notes.
Lectures on a section of the material will be followed by specific tutorials, where students are required to apply knowledge to working context problems. The tutor will provide organised materials and frames for solutions. However, the students will solve the proposed tasks themselves in small groups (max 3 students)
Moreover, there will be a semester-long project: in order to enhance problem solving capabilities, encourage independent thinking and develop professional reporting skills.
For each task each group will produce a final report; the set of all reports will be examined during the final exam. Students are asked to work cooperatively in a small group environment.
The tutor will assist the groups during the tutorial class hours, supporting students in their learning progression and clarifying their doubts. Attendance to both lectures AND tutorials is strongly recommended, this being vital to achieve the
Tutorials may benefit from using EXCEL or MATLAB. Writing reports with editing software is not required; handwritten reports in block letters are fully acceptable if tidy and properly organised. The group decides. Drawing instruments (compass, set squares, scale rulers) are necessary.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Lectures: the subject is fully treated in the slides provided by the teacher. Reference textbooks of international standing are suggested.
Tutorials: texts of problems, datasheets of materials, extracts of standards and manuals will be provided by the tutor.
All lecture materials will be made available on the course website before the lecture starts. Students should either download or print the files before the lecture and use the copy to facilitate taking notes.
Assessment and grading criteria
Achieved learning outcomes will be assessed by means of a final exam. This is based on an analytical assessment of student achievement of the "expected learning outcomes" described above.
In order to properly assess such achievement the examination is composed of different sections:
a) Written session, day 1:
-) a test, duration 2 hrs 30 min, closed book, composed of three questions, two on chapters or sections of the lectures to assess knowledge, one problem to assess problem solving skills; each question scores max 8 points.
To be eligible to take the oral exam the student must score in the written test a minimum total of 14 points with a minimum of 4 (50%) points for each question.
b) The oral session, day 2, consists of:
-) a review of the written output, in which examiners inform the student on grading criteria, and receive any student appeal supported by appropriate explanations;
-) a technical conversation with the teacher to bring out the ability to deal responsibly with a mechanical design problem identifying an appropriate application of acquired knowledge (max additional 4 points)
-) a discussion with the tutor, to whom the student will submit the full set of tutorial reports; the tutor will investigate the effective personal achievement of skills and know how based on contents of reports (max additional 4 points)
Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2015/16