


Politecnico di Torino  
Academic Year 2016/17  
05BEQMX Hydraulics II 

Master of sciencelevel of the Bologna process in Civil Engineering  Torino 





Subject fundamentals
The main objective is to develop both the proper understanding of any set of problems related to hydraulics and the capacity of choosing the correct methods for different time and space scales.

Expected learning outcomes
The academic course ‘Idraulica II’ is part of the curriculum to achieve the Master’s degree in civil engineering specialising in hydraulics. After the indepth analysis of topics belonging to the ‘Idraulica I’ course, new specific themes are introduced such as turbulence, macro surface roughness, waves, physical modelling, sediment transport, flow in filtrating systems.

Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Knowledge of differential calculus, basic notions of mathematical physics and fundamentals of fluid mechanics.

Contents
Recap of basic hydraulics. Real fluids: types and rheological models. NavierStokes equations  Dimensionless version and physical meaning – Slow moving flow  Laminar flow – Analytical and numerical integration cases
Boundary layer turbulence – Velocity distribution  Vortex sheet – Boundary layer turbulence in presence of macro surface roughness Fluid resistance laws in case of geometrical and nongeometrical surface roughness Complements of the Pi Theorem – Complete and incomplete selfsimilarity – Use of physical modelling in hydrodynamics – Physical models in hydraulic engineering. Water wave mechanics. Waves of translation (shallowwater) and waves of oscillation (deepwater)  Long and short wavelengths  Rapid front waves. Theory. Irrotational waves  Waves propagation  Orbital motion  Transportation velocity  Waves shoaling  Capillary waves  Implications for physical models – Energy methods in the study of the wave flow. Group and phase velocity, energy and energy propagation in progressive waves  Reflection and transmission of rapidly risingbottom waves General overview of flows in natural streams, considering the solidliquid interface and the resulting bedload transport. Sediment transport mechanisms: Hydrodynamic mechanism  theoretical and practical aspects Turbulence role on bedload and suspended load motion. Outlines of noncohesive sediment transport  Incipient motion  Homogeneous or heterogeneous grain size distributions  available methods  comparison. Concentration of the solid phase, real stream capacity. Complementary information on theories and formulas for the calculation of bed load motion applications and expected results. Suspended load motion. Introduction to sediment transport of coherent material. Modelling of natural stream flows: onedimensional scheme, quasi twodimensional scheme, twodimensional scheme  Motion and continuity equation  outlines of solution methods. Onedimensional scheme. Main characteristics. Surface and bottom waves celerity  Bedform, different types and formation criteria in sand and gravel riverbeds. Threshold of movement. Fluid resistance laws. Theoretical principles for 1D mathematical models relative to fluvial morphology: Parabolic and hyperbolic models for the study of evolutionary phenomena at different spatial and temporal scales. Examples of practical applications. Balances of sediment transport – evolutionary trends – erosion/ deposit of the river bed and its dynamic equilibrium Physical models with mobile bedforms: similar and distorted models with a constant Froude number for the study of local phenomena (mechanical similitude, scales etc.) Dispersiveviscoplastic mechanism Hyperconcentrated flows: single and twophase schemes. Internal stress – turbulent dispersive stress – role of the interstitial fluid and of granular and clay sediments. • Immature debrisflow: solid material concentration in hyperconcentrated flows – calculation of the solid material concentration. Simplification of formula for the case è>>ècr. Example of the calculation of the water level increase due to the increase of solid material concentration. • Mature debrisflow (granular and muddy material) : Types of debrisflow. Rheological models. Bagnold’s dispersive stress. Viscous and granularinertial regimes. Choice of the possible rheological model. Dynamical characteristics and impact forces. Examples. 
Delivery modes
In addition to the taught modules, the class exercises are dedicated to practical examples fundamental to develop the student’s ability to solve hydraulic engineering problems.

Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
The teaching material, available on the web page of the course, consists in compendiums written by Prof.Bianco and copies of the projected material from the classes.
For specific indepth analyses the following text books are suggested: E. Marchi & A. Rubatta Meccanica dei fluidi: principi e applicazioni idrauliche – UTET Torino A. Ghetti – Idraulica – Edizioni Libreria Cortina – Padova  C. Montuori – Complementi di Idraulica – Liguori Editore – Napoli – 2002 H. W. Graf & M. Altinakar  Fluvial Hydraulics – John Wiley & Sons – England 
Assessment and grading criteria
The final exam consists in an oral discussion through which the candidate should demonstrate to possess notions and solving methods for recurring problems in hydraulic engineering.
The final outcome of the examination will be based on the evaluation of the exercises produced throughout the course and the outcome of three oral questions. The final mark is the resulting average of the four marks. 
