Politecnico di Torino  
Academic Year 2017/18  
05IHQMK, 05IHQMQ, 10IHQMO Applied thermodynamics and heat transfer 

1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Energy Engineering  Torino 1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Mathematics For Engineering  Torino 1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Environmental And Land Engineering  Torino 





Subject fundamentals
The course is organized in two parts, each of which will be analysed before the methods and general aspects, and then applications.
In the first part, students are guided to understand as a thermodynamic systems and its control surface is linked to the surroundings thank to exchange of heat and work. The basic concepts, definitions, phenomenological laws and principles will be introduced with their mathematical representations. Subsequently the main technologies for the conversion of heat into work and vice versa will be described as well as some methods of calculation will be analysed, in particular will be considered engines and refrigeration equipment (both gas cycles and vapour cycles will be dealt with). In the second part will be analysed, from the phenomenological point of view, the mechanisms by which the heat could be transferred in space and time: heat conduction, convection and radiation. Among the key applications will be studied heat exchangers and heat transfer in extended surfaces such as fins. 
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course students will be able to understand and express in a quantitative way as the energy flows are both cause and effect of all the changes that can be observed in the physical world and as they propagate in space and time in the form of heat: conduction in solids, convection in fluids and thermal radiation in transparent media. As regards the technological knowledge of the engineer, he will be able to distinguish the basic elements and calculate the basic performance of the main devices for producing mechanical power  internal combustion engines and steam engines  and cooling  refrigerators and heat pumps, and for the most common and important types of heat exchangers (sizing of first approximation).

Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Mathematical analysis (differential and integral calculus, methods of solution of the simplest types of ordinary differential equations and partial differential, matrix algebra), physics (mechanics, dynamics, statics of fluids, electromagnetism, the physics of matter), and basic chemical.

Contents
APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS
Definition of variables and basic concepts: system and thermodynamic state; equilibrium, processes and transformations. Temperature, heat, work. Properties of homogeneous bodies: fundamental transformations: isochoric, isobaric, Isothermal, adiabatic, polytropic. Isothermal and adiabatic compressibility. The ideal gas. The work: the work of the external and internal forces. The work of friction in fluids. Kineticenergy theorem and Bernoulli equation. The first law of thermodynamics: formulation, internal energy, entalpy, specific heat. Energy balance . The second law of thermodynamics: thermal devices, general formulation, entropy, specific heat, reversibility and irreversibility. Ideal Carnot cycle. Carnot's theorem. Thermodynamic temperature. State equation, phase transformations in singlecomponent systems and, Clapeyron equation, liquidvapor system properties. Thermodynamics of open systems. General formulations: mass conservation, first and second law. Exergy and availability balance for an open system (steady flow equation) Gas power cycles . Vapour power cycles. Reverse vapour compression cycles. Principles Gasvapor mixtures Psychrometric properties, charts and transformations. HEAT TRANSFER Introduction to the thermal transport modes: conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction: Fourier’s law, thermal conductivity, general heat conduction equation. Applications for steady onedimensional conduction with and without internal heat generation. Convection: fluid properties. Fluid transictions. Velocity and thermal boundary layers. Newton’s law of cooling. Natural and forced convection: internal and external flows. Dimensionless parameters and theirs meaning. Summary of convection relationships . Applications for conduction and convention: transient conduction: lumped thermal capacity model. Critical radius for radial heat conduction. Extended surfaces (longitudinal fins, temperature distribution, rate of heat transfer, and fin efficiency). Heat Exchangers : logarithmic mean temperature difference method and effectivenessNTU method. Thermal Radiation. Thermal radiation in the electromagnetic spectum. Fundamentals definition. Absorptivity, reflectivity, transmissivity. View factors, emittance, radiative exchange between black and grey surfaces. The electrical circuit analogy for radiation among grey surfaces. 
Delivery modes
The course topics are treated in lectures that provide the basis of the Thermodynamic and the Heat transfer. Then some application problems are proposed and analysed and for these cases are developed the numerical solutions. Moreover it is planned the analysis of at least one plant of the didactic laboratory.

Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
• Calì M., Gregorio P., TERMODINAMICA, Esculapio Ed., Bologna Ed. in un volume unico
• Cavallini A., Mattarolo L., TERMODINAMICA APPLICATA, Cleup Ed., Padova. • Cavallini A., Bonacina C., Mattarolo L., TRASMISSIONE DEL CALORE, Cleup Ed., Padova. • Giaretto V., LEZIONI DI TERMODINAMICA APPLICATA E TRASMISSIONE DEL CALORE, Clut Ed., Torino. • Guglielmini G., Pisoni C., INTRODUZIONE ALLA TRASMISSIONE DEL CALORE, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana. • Torchio M.F., TABELLE DI TERMODINAMICA APPLICATA E TRASMISSIONE DEL CALORE. Clut Ed., Torino. In the first lectures each lecturer will notify the suggested textbooks for his teaching. 
Assessment and grading criteria
The acquired skills are verified through a written test. The candidate must demonstrate to analyze the problem proposed, find an analytical solution and, when required, obtain the correct numerical result and be accompanied by consistent units of measure.
The questions concern all the program and may require you to know how to use equations, tables and thermodynamic diagrams appropriately. The candidate must also be able to draw plant schemes, draw transformations on diagrams, and be able to properly write and apply the general laws of thermodynamics and heat transfer. To make calculations a scientific calculator is required and if the task requires the use of thermodynamic tables or diagrams these will be provided with the text. The score of the written exam will be expressed in thirty (30). The questions can be 3 or 4 and each question will have the same weight (so if 3 questions each will weigh 10 points, if 4 questions each will weigh 7.5 points). Depending on the length of the calculations required, the total duration of the exam will vary from a minimum of 2 hours to a maximum of 2.5 hours. 
