|Politecnico di Torino|
|Academic Year 2015/16|
|06IHQMN, 05IHQLX, 06IHQLN
Applied thermodynamics and heat transfer
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Mechanical Engineering - Torino
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Electrical Engineering - Torino
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Automotive Engineering - Torino
The course aims to introduce the principles of thermodynamics, the main processes and thermodynamic cycles and the fundamentals of heat transfer, also with reference to the motion of fluids.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge of the principles of thermodynamics;
Knowledge of the main processes and thermodynamic cycles
Knowledge of the fundamentals of heat transfer, also with reference to the motion of fluids;
Ability to apply the principles of thermodynamics to simple systems;
Ability to describe and understand the main thermodynamic cycles;
Ability to read thermodynamic diagrams
Ability to identify the mechanisms of heat transfer relevant to a given phenomenon.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Calculus. Linear algebra. Fundamentals of Differential Equations. Fundamentals of Physics I and II.
Purpose of Thermodynamics. Basic definitions: primitive and derived quantities. Thermodynamic coordinates, state and equations of state. Processes and transformations. Direct and inverse processes and cycles. Temperature: definition and outline of thermometry. Quantities function of process: Heat and heat flow. Work and power. Forces on surface, mass and internal forces. The equation of mechanical energy. Calorimetry: Transformations of simple homogeneous fluids. The adiabatic process. Application to ideal gases.
The First Law of Thermodynamics: Statement. Internal energy and enthalpy. The generalized enthalpy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat engines and efficiency. The irreversibility. The key statement in the form of Plank inequality. The cycle and Carnot's theorem. The Clapeyron equation. Reversible processes. Entropy. Maximum efficiency of a cycle. The theorem for maximum efficiency and maximum work. The first law for open systems. The second law for open systems. Open systems: Lagrangian and Eulerian description. The mass flow rate. Conservation of mass and momentum, first and second law of thermodynamics. The Bernoulli equation.
Gas cycles: ideal cycles Carnot, Otto, Diesel, Joule.
The multi-phase systems: The state changes and transformations vapor-liquid. Definitions and basic equations. The Clapeyron equation.
Steam Engines: The thermodynamic steam cycles Carnot and Rankine-Hirn, and their representations in the plans p-v, T-s and h-s. The efficiency of the Rankine cycle. Overheating and regeneration. Real gases: equation of state.
Macchine frigorifere e pompe di calore: Fluidi con attrito ed effetto Joule-Thomson nella trafilazione isoentalpica. I cicli inversi. Definizioni. L'efficienza o COP. Il diagramma h-log p. Cicli di macchine frigorifere a compressione di vapore con compressione semplice e multistadio.
Chillers and heat pumps: Fluid friction and Joule-Thomson effect in lamination isoenthalpic. The inverse cycles. Definitions. The efficiency or COP. The h-log p diagram. Cycles of compression refrigeration machines with simple compression and multistage.
Psychrometry: ideal mixtures of ideal gases, psychrometric variables, Mollier diagram of moist air, moist air changes.
Introduction to heat transfer. Continuous and discrete representations. The modes of the heat exchange.
Conduction: The fundamental equation with boundary conditions. The Fourier equation. Phenomenology and thermal conductivity. Applications.
Fluid flow and convection: Viscosity. Laminar and turbulent flow and Reynolds number. Interactions fluid-wall, boundary layer of speed and temperature in flat plates and in the ducts. The convection and the Newton equation. The dimensionless numbers. Forced convection in the flatbed. The heat exchange into ducts. Dimensionless relations for forced convection. Natural convection and dimensionless relations in the flatbed.
Heat Exchangers: Classification and structural characteristics. Calculation of surface heat exchangers. Energy balance and heat fluxes. Trend of the temperature of the fluids in the heat exchangers in coaxial tubes. Efficiency.
Radiation: Definitions and characteristics variables. The black body. The Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien laws. The real bodies and Kirchhoff's laws. Exchange of radiant energy between black bodies. The form factors. The electrical analogy.
Tutorials with problem solving examples about all the topics of the course.
Two home assignments, with a report each to be discussed in the oral exam:
• Joule cycle (gas cycle)
• Rankine cycle (steam cycle)
The laboratory exercises will be carried out at the headquarters of the Polytechnic of Turin (Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24) and more specifically at the Department of Energy. 2 laboratory exercises are carried out:
• 4 hours total (students splitted in 4 groups, therefore 1 hour per student): inverse cycles
• 4 hours total (students splitted in 4 groups, therefore 1 hour per student): heat exchangers.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
The only reference of the topics covered in the course and that will be considered is the program above.
For the purpose of adequate preparation is NOT sufficient to study only on notes taken during the lectures. To better understand the topics it is necessary to deepen the study of a book, or better, on more than one, at the discretion of the student that can be chosen from one of those listed in the list below.
Textbooks on Applied Thermodynamics only
• M. Calì, P. Gregorio, "Termodinamica" Esculapio, Bologna (the closest to the program of the course).
• M. W. Zemansky, M.M. Abbott, H.C. Van Ness, "Fondamenti di termodinamica per ingegneri", Zanichelli
• P. S. Schmidt, O. A. Ezekoye, J. R. Howell, D. K. Baker, "Thermodynamics: An Integrated Learning System", J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006. (Good textbook in English)
Textbooks on Heat Transfer only
• G. Guglielmini, C. Pisoni, "Introduzione alla trasmissione del calore", Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Gennaio 2002
• R. Borchiellini, M. Calì, M. Torchio, "Note per le lezioni di trasmissione del calore e termocinetica", Politeko 2001
Textbooks on both Applied Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
• Y. A. Çengel, "Termodinamica e trasmissione del calore", McGraw-Hill, 2005.
• M. J. Moran, H. N. Shapiro, B. R. Munson, D. P. DeWitt, "Introduction to Thermal Systems Engineering,
• Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer", J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003 (Good textbook in English).
• R. Borchiellini, M. Calì, M. Torchio, CD con esempi di domande a risposte multiple CLUP 2001
Exercises on both Applied Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
• P. Gregorio, "Esercizi di Fisica Tecnica", Levrotto & Bella, 1990.
Assessment and grading criteria
The exam consists of a written test, which will require to solve some numerical exercises, and a discussion on the topics of the course program.
To access the interview must have obtained a minimum score of 16/30 in the written test and produce reports on the practical calculation, and those on laboratory exercises carried out during the course, it is possible that on which clarifications are required.
Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2015/16