


Politecnico di Torino  
Academic Year 2012/13  
06IHQMA Applied thermodynamics and heat transfer 

1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Biomedical Engineering  Torino 





Subject fundamentals
The course is developed in two basic topics, where the general approach and the fundamental are presented. In the first part, students learn how changes in material bodies are related to energy as heat and work. Definitions and bases, the phenomenological laws, the general principles that govern these phenomena, together with their mathematical representations, and behavioral patterns of the pure substances and as mixtures are presented. The main technologies of the conversion of heat into work and vice versa, related to engines and refrigeration equipment, are presented, with particular regards to the numerical evaluation of the physical quantities. In the second part, the phenomenological viewpoint and the analytical one of the mechanisms of heat transfer are treated: heat conduction, convection and radiation. Applications to engineering fields, with particular interest for the bioengineering, are presented.

Expected learning outcomes
Students are required to be able to understand and evaluate how the flows of energy are cause and effect of all the changes, processes and transformations of the physical world, and how heat is transferred by transport phenomena by conduction in solids, convection in liquids and in gasses. The heat transfer by electromagnetic waves is analyzed, too. In relation to the technologies, students are required to highlight the fundamental devices and evaluate their performances, with particular regards to mechanical energy and cooling, to the evaluation of the heat transfer by the thermal exchanges by conduction, convection and radiation by using different devices.

Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Basic mathematical analysis (differential and integral calculus, methods of solution of the simple ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations), basic physical knowledge (mechanics, dynamics, statics of fluid, electromagnetism, physics of matter) and basic chemistry.

Contents
APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS (54 h)
Basic knowledge of fundamental quantities: system, thermodynamic state, temperature, heat, and work. First law: general statement, internal energy. Second law: general statements, thermal engines, the Carnot’s theorem, thermodynamic temperature, entropy, reversibility and irreversibility. Flowing systems: fundamental equations, enthalpy, specific heat and energy balance. Kinetic energy equation and Bernoulli theorem. Homogeneous bodies properties, behaviour of substances, general thermodynamic relations and fundamental transformations, isothermal and adiabatic compressibility. Pure substances: state changes, Clapeyron equation for vapour, twophase mixtures. Equations of steat, ideal gasses, Psychrometry: psychrometric quantities and transformations of a wet substance. Introduction to reference cycles for gas and vapour engines. Devices and inverse cycles with single and multistage vapour compression. HEAT TRANSFER (27 h) Heat transfer phenomena. Conduction: general equation. The Fourier’s law. Thermal conductivity. Steady state and transient phenomena. The Newton’s law for convection. Velocity and temperature boundary layers in external, internal flows. Dimensionless numbers approach and analytical relations. Heat exchangers: typologies and design methods. Radiative phenomena: black and grey bodies. Analytical approaches. 
Delivery modes
Theoretical lessons provide fundamental approaches and methods of the course topics. Numerical exercises are developed in order to improve the theoretical knowledge and the analysis of the engineering applications.

Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Textbooks
 Giaretto V., LEZIONI DI TERMODINAMICA APPLICATA E TRASMISSIONE DEL CALORE, Clut Ed., Torino.  Giaretto V., ESERCITAZIONI DI TERMODINAMICA APPLICATA, Clut Ed., Torino. Further readings  Calì M., Gregorio P., TERMODINAMICA, Esculapio Ed., Bologna Ed. in un volume unico  Cavallini A., Mattarolo L., TERMODINAMICA APPLICATA, Cleup Ed., Padova.  Cavallini A., Bonacina C., Mattarolo L., TRASMISSIONE DEL CALORE, Cleup Ed., Padova.  Guglielmini G., Pisoni C., INTRODUZIONE ALLA TRASMISSIONE DEL CALORE, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.  Torchio M.F., TABELLE DI TERMODINAMICA APPLICATA E TRASMISSIONE DEL CALORE. Clut Ed., Torino. 
Assessment and grading criteria
The exam consists of a written test with numerical exercises. It is possible to attend also an oral test during the same examination term. It is required to exceed a threshold to attend the oral exam. Further information and details know provided at the beginning of the course.

