|Politecnico di Torino|
|Academic Year 2010/11|
|06KWRLI, 06KWRJM, 06KWRLJ, 06KWRLL, 06KWRLM, 06KWRLN, 06KWRLS, 06KWRLX, 06KWRLZ, 06KWRMA, 06KWRMB, 06KWRMC, 06KWRMH, 06KWRMK, 06KWRMN, 06KWRMO, 06KWRMQ, 06KWRNX, 06KWRNZ, 06KWROA, 06KWROD, 06KWRPC, 06KWRPI, 06KWRPL
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Automotive Engineering - Torino
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Mechanical Engineering - Torino
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Telecommunications Engineering - Torino
Expected learning outcomes
The course aims at providing the necessary background for the interpretation of chemical phenomena, for the understanding of the structure and properties of molecules and crystalline solids, and the comprehension and handling of energetic phenomena concerning chemical and electrochemical systems.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
To make profit of the course it is required to master the basic notions of general chemistry, the symbols of elements and compounds, the simplest nomenclature both organic and inorganic, the balancing of elementary stoichiometric reactions.
Constitution of the nucleus, structure of the hydrogen atom and atomic models (Bohr and quantum-mechanical)
Quantum numbers, exclusion principle and Hundt rule
Spatial form of s,p and d orbitals
CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS AND PERIODIC TABLE
Electronic configuration of the elements and periodicity in the chemical and physical properties
Atomic radius, ionization energy and electron affinity
Subdivision into metals, non-metals and semimetals.
Basics on the main groups of the periodic table and some transition metals.
THE CHEMICAL BOND
Bond: ionic, covalent, metallic. Intermolecular interactions.
Covalent bond: single, double and triple.
Molecular geometry, hybridisation and resonance (C a san example).
Notes on the theory of molecular orbitals.
NOMENCLATURE, FORMULAS AND STOICHIOMETRY
Atomic and molecular mass, the mole, Avogadro's constant.
Acid-base reactions and formation of salts.
Oxidation state and balancing of redox reactions.
Mass relationships in a chemical reaction, limiting reagent.
Ideal gas laws. State equation of ideal gases.
Equilibrium distribution of kinetic energies in an ideal gas (Boltzmann).
Liquefaction of a gas.
Vapour pressure of pure liquids.
Solutions: ways to express concentration. Dissociation and ionization degree. Colligate properties of solutions, both electrolytic and non. Definition of acid and base according to Arrhenius, Brønsted and Lewis. Ostwald dilution law.
Ionic product of water, pH and pOH.
Unit cell and structure of simplestcrystalline solids. Crystal lattices. Classification of solids. Notes on X-rays diffraction.
CHEMICAL KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
Reaction rate and order. Arrhenius equation. Activation energy. Catalysis and catalysts.
Mass action law. Equilibrium constant. Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical equilibria. Le Chatelier principle and influence of the temperature on the equilibrium.
First, second and third Principle. Reaction enthalpy and Hess law. Change in entropy and free energy of a reaction. Spontaneity criterion.
Normal and effective potential of an electrode. Electrochemical cells and Nernst equation. Electrochemical force of a cell. Reactivity of metals with ocids, oxidizing or not. Electrolysis and Faraday laws.
Nomenclature and properties of the main organic compounds. Most common functional groups and their main reactions. Isomerism: structural, conformational and optical. Polymerization mechanisms fpr addition and condensation.
During practicals no new subject is dealt with, but only the numerical and computational of some subjects, among which:
' Survey of inorganic nomenclature
' Mole, gram-atom, molecular weight.
' Mass relationships in chemical reactions
' Redox reactions and their balancing.
' Ideal gases laws.
' Colligate properties of solutions.
' Chemical equilibria (homogeneous and heterogeneous)
' Reaction enthalpy (Hess law)
' pH and equilibria in aqueous solutions
' Nernst equation concerning an electrode or a cell.
' Faraday Laws
' Ideal gas laws
' Precipitation reactions
' Acid o-base titration
' Redox reactions
' pH measurement
' Daniell cell
Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2010/11