Politecnico di Torino
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Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2007/08
09BNIBK
Thermal and hydraulic machines
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Automotive Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Millo Federico ORARIO RICEVIMENTO O2 ING-IND/08 58 24 2 0 8
Spessa Ezio ORARIO RICEVIMENTO O2 ING-IND/08 58 26 0 0 6
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/08 7.5 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria energetica
Objectives of the course
The module aims at supplying the fundamentals of fluid-flow machines, with specific reference to constructive aspects, principles of operation, evaluation of performance and off-design operations of both the single fluid-flow machine and the energy system in which it is inserted.
Through the systematic application of the principles of thermo-fluid-dynamics to energy conversion systems and their components, the module provides the students with the ability not only to choose engines and engineering-plant solutions in relation to their applications, but also to approach and solve specific design problems by integrating the concepts acquired in the module with advanced notions on specific topics.
Prerequisites
The preliminary knowledge acquired in the courses of Thermodynamics and Thermokinetics, Applied Mechanics and Fluid Mechanics.
Syllabus
Generalities of fluid-flow machines and constructive aspects.
- Classification of fluid-flow machines, energy systems and their applications. Primary energy sources.
- Turbomachinery: blades and principle of operations.
- Volumetric machines: internal combustion engines, reciprocating and rotary compressors.
Principles of energy conversion; thermodynamics of fluid-flow machines and energy systems.
- Conservation equations for real flows in fluid systems and their application to heat engines and turbomachineries. Evaluations of entropy, specific entropy and their variations in elementary or finite processes in energy systems. Exergy balance and its applicative aspects.
- Heating values and their application to thermodynamic analysis of the combustion. Constant-volume and constant-pressure combustion in ideal and real processes; combustion in steady-state flows.
- Principles of thermodynamics applied to turbomachinery; velocity triangles and Eulerian expression of the shaft work; transformations of fluid between turbomachinery vanes: nozzles and diffusers.
- Thermodynamic charts and cycles; fundamental problems in engine plants: efficiency and fuel consumption of heat engines.
Combustion systems
- Stationary and dynamic components in heat engine plants. Steam generators and burners: energy balance and efficiency.
- Turbines and turbochargers: isentropic and polytropic efficiencies; one-dimensional analysis of the flow; design process and calculation of stage performance; choice of turbomachineries; similarity in fluid motion in turbomachinery; turbomachinery characteristics.
- Gas turbine plants; analysis of the ideal cycle; effects of operating variables on the efficiency of gas-turbine cycle; schemes to improve cycle efficiency.
- Internal combustion reciprocating engines: cycle analysis with ideal gas working fluid; fuel-air cycle analysis; real engine cycles; valve-timing and valve-lift diagrams; power output, mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency and engine operating parameters; correction factors for power and volumetric efficiency; engine operating characteristics.
Applied thermodynamic design of fluid-flow machines and their control.
- Surging and rotating stall in turbochargers; operating point; turbocharging control to satisfy off-design operations; choice of a turbocharger.
- Control of off-design operations in single-shaft gas turbines and of simple cycle gas turbine with free power turbine.
Combined plants and cogeneration plants.
- Steam turbine power plants and their control.
- Combined cycle plant with gas and steam turbines; evaluation of performance, off-design analysis and control.
Hydraulic machines
- Hydraulic turbomachinery. Cavitation in hydraulic machines.
Laboratories and/or exercises
The classroon training consists in solving exercises and practical problems by applying the concepts covered in the lessons. The aim of training is to give the students the order of magnitude of the main parameters and to improve their degree of understanding.


One of the following activities is scheduled.
Guided tours to establishments are organised in order to permit the student to have a direct view of the power plants and their components.
Engine workshops. Analysis of fluid engines and instrumentation present in the Engine Laboratory of Energetics Department. Measurement of characteristics of hydraulic turbine and pump. Measurement of operating characteristic of internal combustion engines.
Bibliography
A.E. Catania, Complementi di Macchine, Ed. Levrotto & Bella, Torino, 1979.
A.E. Catania, Turbocompressori, ACSV (Notes from the seminar of Vercelli), Ed. CGVCU (Management Committee of University courses in Vercelli), 1990.
A.E. Catania, Compressori volumetrici, ACSV, Ed. CGVCU, 1991.
G. Ferrari, Motori a combustione interna, Il Capitello, 1995.
A. Mittica, Turbomacchine idrauliche operatrici, ACV, Ed. CGVCU, 1994.
Revisions / Exam
The exam consists of both a written and oral test.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2007/08
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