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Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2016/17
12BNINE
Thermal and hydraulic machines
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Mechanical Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Dongiovanni Claudio ORARIO RICEVIMENTO AC ING-IND/08 73 24 3 0 19
Mittica Antonio ORARIO RICEVIMENTO     73 24 3 0 17
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/08 10 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria meccanica
Subject fundamentals
The subject aims at analysing the constructive aspects, the operation principles and the performance of fluid-flow machines, turbomachinery and volumetric machinery, with the evaluation of performance and off-design operations of both the single fluid-flow machine and the energy system in which it is inserted. In particular, the subject will cover steam and gas power plants, combined-cycle power plants, hydraulic machinery, hydraulic power transmissions and internal combustion engines.
Expected learning outcomes
Through the systematic application of the principles of thermo-fluid-dynamics to energy conversion systems and their components, the module provides the students with the ability not only to choose engines and engineering-plant solutions in relation to their applications, but also to approach and solve specific design problems by integrating the concepts acquired through the module with advanced notions on related topics. The subject gives the elements to face and individually solve specific problems for the design and control of hydraulic and thermal machines. It also provides the basic knowledge to study and deepen the issues for specialised employment of fluid flow machines.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
The knowledge acquired through the subject of Hydraulic and Thermal Machines Fundamentals is required, along with the basic notions of Thermodynamics and Thermokinetics, Applied Mechanics and Fluid Mechanics.
Contents
Contents (prof. Mittica)
- Principles of energy conversion; thermodynamics of fluid-flow machines and energy systems.
- Heating values and their application to thermodynamic analysis of combustion. Constant-volume and constant-pressure combustion in ideal and real processes; combustion in steady-state flows.
- Gas compressors: performance characteristics, instability of the working conditions, surge and stall; control in the turbo-compressor.
- Displacement compressors: reciprocating piston compressor, sliding vane compressor, Roots blower: constitution, performance and control.
- Hydraulic turbines; hydraulic pumps. Fluid-flow similarity and characteristic curves. Control in pumps. Parallel and series connection of dynamic pumps to piping system. Pump cavitation, allowable suction head and permissible suction lift.
- Positive displacement pumps and motors; torque hydrostatic transmissions; hydraulic joints and hydrodynamic converters
- Organization of multistage steam turbines.
- Off-design performance analysis of blades. Evaluation and representation of the operational range of a turbo-expander.
- Turbine performance map of a turbomachinery and simplified formulas for its evaluation; consumption characteristics.
- Control methods for steam turbines. Operational range of back pressure and extraction steam turbines.
- Gas turbine plants; analysis of ideal and actual cycles; effects of operating variables on the efficiency of the gas-turbine cycle; schemes to improve cycle efficiency. Combined power plants and cogeneration plants.
- Performance characteristics of a gas turbine; control in gas turbine plants and in cogeneration plants.
- Internal combustion engines: cycle analysis with ideal gas working fluid; fuel-air cycle analysis; actual engine cycles; valve-timing and valve-lift diagrams; power output, mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency and engine operating parameters; correction factors for power and volumetric efficiency; control characteristic and WOT mechanical characteristic for SI and CI engines. Turbocharging the internal combustion engines.
- Exhaust emissions of ICEs. Overview of emission formation mechanisms: formation of CO and oxide nitrogen. Regulation framework of ICE emissions.
Delivery modes
Delivery modes (A. Mittica)
The classroom training consists in solving exercises and practical problems by applying the concepts covered in the lectures. The aim of training is to give the students the order of magnitude of the main parameters and to improve their degree of understanding.

LABORATORY WORK PROGRAMME
Engine workshops. Analysis of fluid-flow engines and instrumentation present in the Engine Laboratory of Energy Department. Experimental tests on the dynamometric rig of an internal combustion engine.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
References (prof. A. Mittica)
a) reference books:
- A.E. Catania, Complementi di Macchine, Ed. Levrotto & Bella, Torino, 1979.
- G. Ferrari, Motori a combustione interna, Il Capitello, 1995.
- G. Lozza, Turbine a gas e cicli combinati, Progetto Leonardo, 2007.
b) Notes available at the Centro Stampa del Politecnico:
- A.E. Catania, Turbocompressori, ACSV (Appunti dai Corsi Seminariali di Vercelli), Ed. CGVCU (Comitato per la Gestione in Vercelli dei Corsi Universitari), 1990.
- A.E. Catania, Compressori volumetrici, ACSV, Ed. CGVCU, 1991.
- A.E. Catania, Turbine idrauliche, ACSV, Ed. CGVCU, 1992.
- A. Mittica, Turbomacchine idrauliche operatrici, ACV, Ed. CGVCU, 1994.
Assessment and grading criteria
Assessment (prof. A. Mittica)
The exam consists of a written and an oral test and aims to verify the comprehension of the topics covered in lectures. The final mark is determined by the results of the two tests.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2016/17
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